By Mark Krause; Stephen Smith; Daniel Corts; Dan Dolderman
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Psychological Science [Canadian Edition]
Because our thoughts and behaviours have multiple influences, psychologists adopt multiple perspectives to understand them. 2 on p. 6). Biological influences on our behaviour involve brain structures and chemicals, hormones, and external substances such as drugs. Psychological influences involve our memories, emotions, and personalities, and how these factors shape the way we think about and respond to different people and situations. Finally, social factors such as our family, peers, ethnicity, and culture can have a huge effect on our behaviour.
Horoscopes make very general predictions—typically so much so that you could easily find evidence for them if you looked hard enough, and perhaps stretched an interpretation of events a bit. ” Each of these hypotheses can be confirmed or rejected through scientific testing. An obvious difference between science and astrology is that scientists are eager to test hypotheses such as these, whereas astrologists would rather you just take their word for it. We do acknowledge that astrology is a very easy target for criticism.
Examine the nature and source of the evidence; not all research is of equal quality. 2). 3. Examine assumptions and biases. This includes your own assumptions as well as the assumptions of those making claims. 2). 4. Avoid overly emotional thinking. Emotions can tell us what we value, but they are not always helpful when it comes to making critical decisions. 1); however, it is important to put those aside to examine the studies themselves. 5. Tolerate ambiguity. Most complex issues do not have clear-cut answers.