An Introduction to Polymer Chemistry by D East, G C Margerison

By D East, G C Margerison

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Mt (l+2p+3p2+4p3+. (l-pf ■{\-pf'Ml l+P I-PMI = 1900 (in our example) cf. Mn = 1000. The most important thing to notice is the large difference between the two types of average. In fact, for this distribution, the ratio of Mw/Mn approaches two as the parameter p approaches one so that a molecular weight measurement which depends on a weight averaging procedure gives nearly twice the value of a measurement based on a number averaging procedure. Consequently, in stating the molecular weight of a polymer, the type of average must also be given.

The precipitated phase consists mainly of solvent, some nonsolvent, and no more than 10-20% of the original polymer if the precipitation conditions have been chosen correctly; the volume of this phase is considerably smaller than that of the supernatant phase and hence the polymer concentration greater. Each polymer species is distributed between the two phases but the distribution is such that the precipitated phase contains a greater proportion of the high molecular weight material. The temperature of the system is then raised until the two-phase system becomes one; on allowing the temperature to fall slowly to its original value, a polymer-rich phase again separates.

CH3 H H, CH, natural rubber (eis 1,4 polyisoprene) CH3 CH2 \ CH; *3 \ I JHL2 ^^^^^^CH^CH— CH2CH2 ^ ^C-C7 / \ H CH2 gutta percha (trans 1,4 polyisoprene) The effect of heating high molecular weight organic polymers to reasonably high temperatures should also be mentioned. In the presence of oxygen, the usual products of combustion, carbon dioxide, water and so on, are formed so enabling an elemental analysis to be made. In the absence of oxygen, a polymer usually breaks up into low molecular weight products, mainly monomer.

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