A Theory of Philosophical Fallacies by Leonard Nelson (auth.)

By Leonard Nelson (auth.)

Presented as a Vorlesung within the German philosophical culture, this e-book offers the main unique account of Nelson’s approach to argument research, celebrated through many luminaries comparable to Karl Popper. It was once written in 1921 towards the relativistic, subjectivistic and nihilistic trends of Nelson’s time. The ebook includes an exposition of a mode that could be a additional improvement of Kant’s transcendental dialectics, by way of an software to the serious research of arguments by way of many recognized thinkers, together with Bentham, Mill, Poincaré, Leibniz, Hegel, Einstein, Bergson, Rickert, Simmel, Brentano, Stammler, Jellinek, Dingler, and Meinong. The e-book offers a basic conception of philosophical argumentation as obvious from the point of view of the common fallacies devoted via anyone arguing philosophically, even if specialist philosophers or philosophical laypeople. even supposing the character of philosophy and philosophical argumentation is among the such a lot recurrent gadgets of mirrored image for philosophers, this e-book represents the 1st try at a basic conception of philosophical fallacy. based on Nelson, it really is within the form of fake dilemmas that error in reasoning continually emerge, and fake dilemmas are regularly the results of an identical mechanism--the unwitting substitute of 1 thought for another.

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This faculty is what I called our feeling for the truth. If we look more closely at what philosophers of intellectual intuition appeal to, we will in fact discover that they misinterpret the scope and power of that feeling for the truth in their work. It is therefore important to clarify what exactly this feeling for the truth is and investigate what its relationship is to reasoning. Let us assume for the sake of argument not only that there is such a feeling (after all, we all know it from experience), but also that there are good prima facie reasons to trust it.

A logical critique of this type is unnecessary for fields of research that derive their results from the sources of intuition, or at least it does not have anything like the importance and significance that it does in philosophy. For in those fields we have intuition, which yields sufficient clarity about its objects. The sources of dialectical error are less dangerous there. Thus, the fact that philosophy does not have the same source of knowledge as those fields of research that do actually rely on intuition, is what makes logical critique so important in philosophy.

The history of philosophy is concerned with seeking an increasingly satisfying solution to the task of securing the general principles for all possible judgments of 32 Lecture II particulars. For this reason, real progress in the history of philosophy takes place in the dialectical field. In judging specific facts philosophers do not disagree amongst themselves nor with the judgments of everyday human understanding. The disagreement concerns those general principles, and dialectics is needed to establish them.

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