By Martin Hartley Jones
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Extra resources for A practical introduction to electronic circuits [...] XD-US
1), where this low-temperature phase is astate with nonzero spontaneous magnetization (± IMspl for zero applied field H). It is wen known, of course, that this spontaneous symmetry breaking can occur in the thermodynamic limit only. 12. 9) (Sih,H=o = 0 i=l irrespective of the value of N. 65]. 66]. However, even above Tc a small magnetization will typically be found, due to fluctuations which in a finite system observed over a finite time have not completely averaged out. One will find a value ± oM, where oM depends on both the size of the system and the observation time tobs' Similarly, below Tc the magnetization fluctuates in the range M±oM or -M-=foM, and one cannot make oM arbitrarily smaH by making tobs larger and larger.
However, even above Tc a small magnetization will typically be found, due to fluctuations which in a finite system observed over a finite time have not completely averaged out. One will find a value ± oM, where oM depends on both the size of the system and the observation time tobs' Similarly, below Tc the magnetization fluctuates in the range M±oM or -M-=foM, and one cannot make oM arbitrarily smaH by making tobs larger and larger. If tobs becomes of the order of the ergodic time t e , which is the time needed to observe transitions from +M to - M or vice versa, one would start averaging the magnetization to zero.
6a. 28]. Sometimes boundary conditions other than fully periodic boundary conditions are used, due to the intention to study properties other than bulk properties of the system. For example, in order to study free surfaces of a system the so-called "free boundary conditions" are used. Then the "missing spins" next to the free surface are simply set equal zero. This case is illustrated in Fig. 6b. It may then be advisable to spend more statistical effort in the surface layer (and its adjacent layers) rat her than in layers deep in the bulk.