42 Fallacies by Dr. Michael Cooper LaBossiere

By Dr. Michael Cooper LaBossiere

This e-book provides descriptions and examples of forty two universal casual fallacies: advert Hominem advert Hominem Tu Quoque entice the results of a trust attract Authority entice trust attract universal perform attract Emotion entice worry entice Flattery entice Novelty entice Pity attract recognition entice Ridicule attract Spite attract culture Begging the query Biased Generalization Burden of facts Circumstantial advert Hominem Fallacy of Composition complicated reason and impression Fallacy of department fake issue Gambler’s Fallacy Genetic Fallacy Guilt through organization Hasty Generalization Ignoring a typical reason center flooring deceptive Vividness Peer strain own assault Poisoning the good submit Hoc Questionable reason purple Herring Relativist Fallacy Slippery Slope specified Pleading highlight Straw guy Wrongs Make a correct

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Example text

Person A makes claim X. 2. Person B asserts that A’s actions or past claims are inconsistent with the truth of claim X. 3. Therefore X is false. The fact that a person makes inconsistent claims does not make any particular claim he makes false (although of any pair of inconsistent claims only one can be true—but both can be false). Also, the fact that a person’s claims are not consistent with his actions might indicate that the person is a hypocrite but this does not prove his claims are false.

This line of “reasoning” is fallacious because creating fear in people does not constitute evidence for a claim. It is important to distinguish between a rational reason to believe (RRB) (evidence) and a prudential reason to believe(PRB) (motivation). A RRB is evidence that objectively and logically supports the claim. A PRB is a reason to accept the belief because of some external factor (such as fear, a threat, or a benefit or harm that may stem from the belief) that is relevant to what a person values but is not relevant to the truth or falsity of the claim.

Example #2: Gunthar is the father of Connan. They live on a small island and in their culture women are treated as property to be exchanged at will by men. Connan: “You know father, when I was going to school in the United States I saw that American women are not treated as property. ” Connan: “Well, I think that it might be wrong to trade my sisters for cattle. ” Gunthar: “What a strange and new-fangled notion you picked up in America. That country must be even more barbaric then I imagined. Now think about this son.

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